The most basic structural components of a transformer are composed of iron cores, windings and insulation. In addition, for safe and reliable operation, fuel tank, cooling device and protection device are also installed.

(1) Iron core: The iron core of the transformer is the path of the magnetic force line, which plays the role of concentrating and strengthening the magnetic flux, and at the same time, it is used to support the winding.

(2) Winding: The winding of the transformer is the path of the current, and the current is passed through the winding, and the induced electromotive force is generated by electromagnetic induction.

(3) Oil tank: The oil tank is the shell of the oil-immersed transformer. The main body of the transformer is placed in the oil tank, and the tank is filled with transformer oil.

(4) Oil pillow: The oil pillow is also called the auxiliary oil tank. It is a barrel-shaped container made of steel plate. It is installed horizontally on the transformer oil tank cover and is connected to the oil tank by a curved pipe. One end of the oil pillow is equipped with an oil level indicator. The volume of the oil pillow is generally 8% to 10% of the oil volume of the transformer oil tank. Its function is that the inside of the transformer is filled with oil, and because the oil level in the oil pillow is within a certain limit, when the oil expands and contracts at different temperatures, there is room for manoeuvre, and the spare position in the oil pillow is small, so that there is less contact between oil and air. It reduces the possibility of oil getting wet and oxidized. In addition, the oil in the oil conservator is much cooler than the oil in the upper part of the oil tank, and there is almost no convection with the oil in the oil tank. A gas relay is installed on the connecting pipe between the oil pillow and the oil tank to reflect the internal fault of the transformer.

(5) Respirator: The respirator is equipped with a desiccant, namely silica gel, which is used to absorb moisture in the air.

(6) Explosion-proof pipe: The explosion-proof pipe is installed on the oil tank cover of the transformer. The top of the explosion-proof tube is equipped with a glass sheet. When a fault occurs inside the transformer and high pressure is generated, the gas in the oil will break through the glass sheet and be discharged out of the oil tank to release the pressure, thereby protecting the transformer tank from being damaged.

(7) Thermometer: The thermometer is installed in the side temperature cylinder on the fuel tank cover to measure the upper oil temperature in the fuel tank.

(8) Bushing: The bushing is an insulating device that leads the leads of the high and low voltage windings of the transformer to the outside of the tank. It is not only the insulation of the lead to the ground (shell), but also plays the role of fixing the lead.

(9) Cooling device: The cooling device is a device that dissipates the heat generated by the transformer during operation.

(10) Oil purifier: also known as temperature difference filter. Its main part is a cylindrical net oil tank welded with steel plates, which is installed on one side of the transformer oil tank. The tank is filled with adsorbents such as silica gel and activated alumina. During operation, due to the temperature difference between the upper oil and the lower oil, the transformer oil flows from top to bottom through the oil purifier to form convection, the oil contacts the adsorbent, and the moisture, acids and oxides in it are absorbed, so that the oil be purified. Extend the life of the oil. The oil purifier of the strong oil circulation transformer relies on the oil flow pressure difference to make the transformer oil flow through the oil purifying pump to achieve the purpose of purification.

For more information about transformer, you can check this article: The purpose of the transformer

The main components and functions of transformers

Post time: Jan-20-2022